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ALOHA BANGLADESH

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Sample Lessons

We have provided some sample lessons from our Digital Courses for the evaluation purpose of the viewers. ALOHA running and pass-out students can avail full courses free of charge. We will add new courses continuously for the students of ALOHA Bangladesh. We will add courses for soft skills development also gradually.

 


BASIC ENGLISH FOR ALL AGES

Lesson 01: To Be – Present Tense

The verb “to be” is an auxiliary verb (helping verb). Auxiliary verbs are verbs that are used together with the main verb of the sentence to express the action or state.
Main verb + auxiliary verb = complete idea. The verb to be used as an auxiliary verb to express ongoing (continuing) actions.

For Example:
Juthi is eating a sandwich.
“Eating” = main verb
“is” = an auxiliary verb

The forms of the verb “to be”

When?Who?FormExample
Base formbeIt can be simple.
Simple PresentI
You
He/She/It
We
They
am
are
is
are
are
I am here.
You are here.
She is here.
We are here.
They are here.
Simple PastI
You
He/She/It
We
They
was
were
was
were
were
I was here.
You were here.
She was here.
We were here.
They were here.
Simple FutureI
You
He/She/It
We
They
will be
will be
will be
will be
will be
I will be here.
You will be here.
She will be here.
We will be here.
They will be here.
Progressive (continuous) formbeingHe is being there.
Perfect formbeenIt has been fun.

To Be: Present Tense

The verb to be describes the identity, qualities, or condition of a person or object. Use the following to form the present tense of the verb to be.

I am → I am happy today.
you are → You are smart.
he is → He is my friend.
she is → She is busy.
it is → It is true.
we are → We are tired.
they are → They are here.

Due to programming syntax omission, you may get an error in questions or answers while practicing. We request you to please notify us by mentioning the lesson name or take a screenshot and send us to our email: Send an email

Write the correct “to be” verb into the blank.

To develop strong skills in a foreign language, you will have to build up your vocabulary stocks. A good practice is; prepare a word notebook to list down all new words with the meaning of your native language. When you see a new word, pause there; open your dictionary and write down the word along with its meaning and purpose in your English word notebook. If you can build up this habit, you will be a master of English or any foreign language.

Select the correct word for blank space to complete the sentence.

Lesson 02: To Be – Present Tense – Negative Form

Place not after the verb to be to create the negative form of the present tense.

I am → I am not → I am not ready.
you are → you are not → You are not busy.
he is → he is not → He is not my friend.
she is → she is not → She is not tall.
it is → it is not → It is not true.
we are → we are not → We are not tired.
they are → they are not → They are not pink.

The negative form of the present tense of the verb to be can also be expressed with the contraction (short form) isn’t or aren’t. There is no contraction for am not.

I am not → I am not → I am not sick.
you are not → you aren’t → You aren’t a teacher.
he is not → he isn’t → He isn’t a lawyer.
she is not → she isn’t → She isn’t ready.
it is not → it isn’t → It isn’t a toy.
we are not → we aren’t → We aren’t twins.
they are not → they aren’t → They aren’t yellow.

Rewrite the following sentences to express the negative form. Write the sentence once using am not, is not, or are not, and once using the contraction isn’t or aren’t.

Select the correct answer for the blank. Use am not or the contraction isn’t or aren’t to complete the following negative sentences.

Lesson 03: To Be – Present Tense – Question Form

Place the verb to be before the subject to create the question form of the present tense.

I am → am I → Am I late?
you are → are you → Are you my new boss?
he is → is he → Is he your teacher?
she is → is she → Is she your neighbor?
it is → is it → Is it expensive?
we are → are we → Are we early?
they are → are they → Are they in the basement?

Please note that we did not restrict capitalization rules in quiz answers, but you should use “capital letter” in the first letter of the first word of the sentence.

Rewrite the following sentences to create questions by placing the verb to be before the subject. Don’t forget to include a question mark (?) in your answer.

Write the correct word into the blank to complete the following questions using the correct form of the verb to be.

Lesson 04: To Be – Past Tense

The past tense of the verb to be is created by using was or were in place of am, is,and are.

I am → I was → I was tired at school today.
you are → you were → You were downstairs.
he is → he was → He was funny.
she is → she was → She was at work.
it is → it was → It was on the shelf.
we are → we were → We were upstairs.
they are → they were → They were here.

Rewrite the following sentences to create the past tense by changing the present tense form of the verb to be to the past tense form.

Select the correct answer for the blank to complete the following past tense sentences using was or were. Note that, in case of singular number – past “to be” verb will be “was” and for plural number and “you” past “to be” verb will be were.

Lesson 05: To Be – Past Tense – Negative Form

Place not after the past tense form of the verb to be to create a negative sentence.

I was → I was not → I was not sick yesterday.
you were → you were not → You were not at the beach.
he was → he was not → He was not at the meeting.
she was → she was not → She was not very nice.
it was → it was not → It was not on my desk.
we were → we were not → We were not late.
they were → they were not → They were not ready.

The negative form of the past tense of the verb to be can also be expressed with the contraction wasn’t or weren’t.

I was → I wasn’t → I wasn’t read last night.
you were → you weren’t → You weren’t at the playground yesterday.
he was → he wasn’t → He wasn’t at home.
she was → she wasn’t → She wasn’t there.
it was → it wasn’t → It wasn’t on my desk.
we were → we weren’t → We weren’t late.
they were → they weren’t → They weren’t ready.

Write the correct word into the blank to express the negative form. Write the sentence once using was not or were not and once using the contraction wasn’t or weren’t.

Select the correct contraction word wasn’t or weren’t for the blank to complete the following negative sentences.

Lesson 06: To Be – Past Tense – Question Form

Place was or were before the subject to form questions in the past tense of the verb to be.

I was → was I → Was I funny?
you were → were you → Were you awake?
he was → was he → Was he very tall?
she was → was she → Was she downtown?
it was → was it → Was it on the floor?
we were → were we → Were we fast?
they were → were they → Were they asleep?

Write the correct words or phrase or complete sentence into the blank to create questions in the past tense “to be” verb by placing was or were before the subject.

Select correct words to complete the following sentences using was or were to form questions in the past tense.

You will find 50 Lessons in the Complete Course

Pronunciation of Contractions

Contractions are often used with the verb to be in the present tense, in both written and spoken form. The ending of the contraction must be firmly pronounced.

Listen and observe the differences:

I amListenI’mListen
you areListenyou’reListen
he isListenhe’sListen
she isListenshe’sListen
it isListenit’sListen
we areListenwe’reListen
they areListenthey’reListen

Listen carefully and repeat the following sentences. For your easy understanding 1st click will play natural speed and 2nd click slowly.

  1. She’s a hairdresser and I’m a real estate agent.Listen
  2. He’s in love with her.Listen
  3. It’s not true.Listen
  4. We’re so proud of you.Listen
  5. They’re best friends.Listen
  6. You’re a funny guy.Listen
  7. She’s a nurse at the clinic.Listen
  8. We’re happy to be here tonight.Listen
  9. He’s the owner of the company.Listen
  10. We’re late for work again.Listen
  11. They’re outside.Listen
  12. She’s my sister.Listen
  13. You’re welcome.Listen
  14. I’m from Montreal.Listen
  15. She’s a big star in Hollywood.Listen
  16. We’re staying home tonight.Listen
  17. They’re getting married in June.Listen
  18. He’s a very tall man.Listen
  19. I’m listening to the news on the radio.Listen
  20. She’s always busy on the weekends.Listen
  21. It’s time for lunch and I’m hungry.Listen
  22. You’re a very interesting person.Listen
  23. I’m sorry for saying that about you.Listen
  24. He’s mad that you did that.Listen
  25. They’re waiting for us downstairs.Listen
  26. I’m making a cake for your birthday.Listen
  27. It’s better like that.Listen
  28. She’s afraid of you.Listen
  29. We’re leaving now.Listen
  30. You’re so nice.Listen

Contractions are often used with the verb to be in the present tense negative form, in both written and spoken form. The -n’t ending of the contraction must be firmly pronounced.

Listen Carefully and Observe the Differences

I am notListen → no contraction
you are notListenyou aren’tListen
he is notListenhe isn’tListen
she is notListenshe isn’tListen
it is notListenit isn’tListen
we are notListenwe aren’tListen
they are notListenthey aren’tListen

Listen carefully and repeat the following sentences.

  1. They aren’t cousins.Listen
  2. She isn’t a secretary.Listen
  3. We aren’t twins.Listen
  4. It isn’t clean.Listen
  5. You aren’t the boss.Listen
  6. He isn’t a policeman.Listen
  7. We aren’t proud of it.Listen
  8. Sara isn’t mad at you.Listen
  9. David isn’t here.Listen
  10. Max and Melanie aren’t in the house.Listen
  11. It isn’t fair.Listen
  12. You aren’t on my list.Listen
  13. He isn’t a doctor.Listen
  14. They aren’t in a meeting.Listen
  15. My brother isn’t a student.Listen
  16. We aren’t ready for the test.Listen
  17. The milk isn’t in the fridge.Listen
  18. He isn’t on vacation this week.Listen
  19. We aren’t busy today.Listen
  20. The cat isn’t under the bed.Listen
  21. My shoes aren’t dirty.Listen
  22. She isn’t a nurse.Listen
  23. The car isn’t in the garage.Listen
  24. The eggs aren’t broken.Listen
  25. It isn’t necessary.Listen
  26. The boys aren’t at the park.Listen
  27. Melanie isn’t serious.Listen
  28. Jenny and I aren’t hungry right now.Listen
  29. He isn’t joking.Listen
  30. It isn’t my birthday today.Listen



Contractions are often used with the verb to be in the past tense negative form, in both written and spoken form. The -n’t ending of the contraction must be firmly pronounced.

Listen carefully and observe the differences:

I was notListenI wasn’tListen
you were notListenyou weren’tListen
he was notListenhe wasn’tListen
she was notListenshe wasn’tListen
it was notListenit wasn’tListen
we were notListenwe weren’tListen
they were notListenthey weren’tListen

Listen carefully and repeat the following sentences.

  1. She wasn’t ready.Listen
  2. They weren’t in class today.Listen
  3. It wasn’t in my purse.Listen
  4. He wasn’t there.Listen
  5. We weren’t at the mall.Listen
  6. I wasn’t late.Listen
  7. You weren’t very nice to her.Listen
  8. The house wasn’t for sale.Listen
  9. Mark and John weren’t hungry.Listen
  10. Jennifer wasn’t with us.Listen
  11. The cows weren’t in the barn.Listen
  12. It wasn’t a good plan.Listen
  13. Tanya and Lynn weren’t on the bus.Listen
  14. The letter wasn’t on my desk.Listen
  15. You weren’t on time for class.Listen
  16. He wasn’t happy about it.Listen
  17. The children weren’t at the playground.Listen
  18. It wasn’t important.Listen
  19. We weren’t at the Mexican restaurant.Listen
  20. My grandparents weren’t in the waiting room.Listen
  21. The girls weren’t at the dance last night.Listen
  22. I wasn’t the first to finish the exam.Listen
  23. The lights weren’t on.Listen
  24. They weren’t at the concert.Listen
  25. Michelle wasn’t in class today.Listen
  26. He wasn’t sick yesterday.Listen
  27. The pie wasn’t very good.Listen
  28. The apples weren’t ripe.Listen
  29. It wasn’t a very good idea.Listen
  30. The restaurant wasn’t open.Listen

The -s on plural nouns must be firmly pronounced.

dogsListen
catsListen
monkeysListen
handsListen
songsListen
pensListen
towelsListen
lampsListen
tripsListen
forksListen

Listen carefully and repeat the following sentences.

  1. Her rings, chains, and earrings are gold.Listen
  2. I bought apples, pears, bananas, and grapes to make my famous fruit salad.Listen
  3. Mary has two brothers and four sisters.Listen
  4. The cups, forks, and spoons are already on the table.Listen
  5. Put on your socks and shoes.Listen
  6. My uncle has cows, pigs, and chickens on his farm.Listen
  7. We saw raccoons, skunks, birds, and bears in the woods.Listen
  8. I need pencils, pens, erasers, books, and binders to start school.Listen
  9. The kids left the toys, marbles, games, and puzzles all over the floor.Listen
  10. She washed the plates, bowls, and utensils but left the pots and pans for me.Listen
  11. Most pet stores sell puppies, kittens, birds, hamsters, and pet supplies.Listen
  12. Johnny has jellybeans, lollipops, and gumballs in his pockets.Listen
  13. We bought blueberries, strawberries, and raspberries at the market.Listen
  14. We will serve hamburgers and hot dogs to our friends.Listen
  15. I need stamps and envelopes to send the letters to our customers.Listen
  16. What are the reasons for her decisions?Listen
  17. Put the lifejackets, paddles, fishing rods, and worms in the boat.Listen
  18. He is afraid of storms, clowns, dogs, and bugs.Listen
  19. We went to shows, museums, and plays in New York City.Listen
  20. Mike gave his girlfriend flowers and chocolates for her birthday.Listen
  21. There are no periods, commas, question marks, or exclamation marks in your documents.Listen
  22. The students and teachers sold muffins, cookies, and doughnuts at the bake sale.Listen
  23. My mother will wash the sheets and blankets today.Listen
  24. I put onions, carrots, green beans, and potatoes in the beef stew.Listen
  25. They need more nails and screws to finish the renovations.Listen
  26. The days, weeks, months, and years pass by so quickly.Listen
  27. There are many great high schools and universities in the United States.Listen
  28. The bathrooms, bedrooms, and closets are not very big in my house.Listen
  29. We forgot the batteries for the flashlights when we went camping.Listen
  30. The frogs are sitting on the lily pads.Listen

When -es is added to nouns that end in ch, sh, x, z, or s to create the plural form, the -es is firmly pronounced as a separate syllable.

brushesListen
dressesListen
boxesListen
peachesListen
quizzesListen

Listen carefully and repeat the following sentences.

  1. How many classes do you have this semester?Listen
  2. How did you get the scratches on your leg?Listen
  3. We want to test your reflexes.Listen
  4. Please send all the faxes today.Listen
  5. You need to trim the branches on your trees.Listen
  6. All the waitresses in this restaurant are nice.Listen
  7. What would you wish for if you had three wishes?Listen
  8. She had several illnesses last year.Listen
  9. Put the dirty dishes in the sink, please.Listen
  10. There is a pack of matches in my coat pocket.Listen
  11. She has two e-mail addresses.Listen
  12. The boxes are full of books and magazines.Listen
  13. He had many successes in his life.Listen
  14. I have a couple of watches.Listen
  15. Where are my glasses?Listen
  16. I need crutches to walk because I broke my ankle.Listen
  17. Are the buses on strike today?Listen
  18. Thank you for all the kisses.Listen
  19. Why are there four brushes in your purse?Listen
  20. The insurance company will compensate you for your losses.Listen
  21. My teacher always gives us quizzes.Listen
  22. There are many old churches in Montreal.Listen
  23. Do you like peaches or pears?Listen
  24. The beaches are beautiful in Hawaii.Listen
  25. Look at the wild foxes near the tree.Listen
  26. All the bosses are in a meeting.Listen
  27. There are ashes on the carpet.Listen
  28. What are the municipal taxes on this property?Listen
  29. Leave the toothbrushes in the bathroom.Listen
  30. There were many cockroaches in the hotel.Listen

You will find 50 Sets of Pronunciation Guidelines in the Complete Course


GENERAL SCIENCE FOR GRADE 2

For new words, open your dictionary and write the meaning in your vocabulary notebook.

Material

Different properties that materials have.

  1. Roughness or smoothness 
  2. Hardness or softness
  3. Transparency, translucency, and opaqueness
  4. Physical state (solid, liquid, and gas)
  5. Appearance (shiny or dull)
  6. Solubility and insolubility in water
  7. Heaviness or lightness with respect to water
  8. Attraction towards magnet
  9. Conduction of heat
  10. Conduction of electricity

Difference between Rough Material and Smooth material:

Rough MaterialSmooth Material
It has an irregular and uneven surface with bumps or ridges and is not smooth to touch.It has an even or a flat surface free from irregularities, roughness or bumps and is smooth to touch.
Examples: Sandpaper, jackfruitExamples: Plastic sheet, mirror

Materials that possess luster or shine:

Materials that have a shiny appearance are said to have ‘luster’. Metals such as gold, silver, copper, and aluminum are among the materials that have this quality.

Miscible and Immiscible liquids ( মিশ্রনযোগ্য এবং অমিশ্রনযোগ্য তরল )।

Miscible liquids: Two liquids are said to be miscible if they mix or dissolve completely in each other to give a single liquid phase and are difficult to separate.
Examples: 

  1. Vinegar and water: Vinegar mixes with water completely to form a single layer. 
  2. Alcohol and water
  3. Kerosene and petrol

Immiscible liquids: Two liquids are said to be immiscible if they do not mix or dissolve in each other completely and form two distinct layers and can be separated easily.
Examples:
1. Vinegar and oil
2. Mustard oil and water
​3. Alcohol and kerosene​


Gases that are soluble in water.

Oxygen and carbon dioxide dissolves in water, i.e., they are soluble in water.

Identify properties of an object

Compare properties of objects

Compare properties of materials

Identify materials in objects

Identify multiple materials in objects

STATES OF MATTER

The three states of matter are solidliquid and gas. The particle model represents particles by small, solid spheres. It describes the arrangement, movement, and energy of particles in a substance. The model can use to explain the physical properties of solids, liquids, and gases.

Classify matter as solid or liquid

Identify solids and liquids

Classify matter as solid, liquid, or gas

Identify solids, liquids, and gases

Sort solids, liquids, and gases

CHANGES OF STATE

Compressibility of solid, liquid, and gas:

There is no space between the individual particles, so they cannot pack together. The kinetic-molecular theory explains why gases are more compressible than either liquids or solids. Gases are compressible because most of the volume of a gas is composed of large amounts of empty space between the gas particles.

Characteristic of solid, liquid, and gas

Solids have a definite shape and volume. Liquids have a definite volume, but take the shape of the container. Gases have no definite shape or volume.

Relationship between solid, liquid, and gas

In general, solids are denser than liquids, which are denser than gases. . The particles in the solid are touching with very little space between them. The particles in a liquid usually are still touching but there are some spaces between them. The gas particles have big distances between them.

Compressibility

Compressibility can be defined as the proportional reduction in the thickness of material under prescribed conditions of increased pressure or compressive loading.

Solid, Liquid, and Gas Examples.

The chair you are sitting on is solid, the water you drink is liquid, and the air you breathe is gas. The atoms and molecules don’t change, but the way they move about does. Water, for example, is always made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.

Change-of-state diagrams: solid and liquid

Change-of-state diagrams: liquid and gas

Change-of-state diagrams: solid, liquid, and gas

Heating, cooling, and changes of state: melting and freezing

Heating, cooling, and changes of state: vaporizing and condensing

HEAT

Heat, the energy that is transferred from one body to another as the result of a difference in temperature. If two bodies at different temperatures are brought together, energy is transferred—i.e., heat flows—from the hotter body to the colder.

Predict heat flow

EARTH EVENTS

IMPORTANT EVENTS IN THE EARTH’S HISTORY


4600 mya (million years ago) – Planet Earth formed. Dust left over from the
birth of the sun clumped together to form planet Earth. The other planets in our
solar system were also formed in this way at about the same time.

4500 mya – Earth’s core and crust formed. Dense metals sank to the centre of the Earth and
formed the core, while the outside layer cooled and solidified to form the Earth’s crust.

4400 mya – The Earth’s first oceans formed. Water vapor was released into the Earth’s
atmosphere by volcanism. It then cooled, fell back down as rain, and formed the Earth’s first oceans.
Some water may also have been brought to Earth by comets and asteroids.

3850 mya – The first life appeared on Earth. It was a very simple single-celled organism. Exactly
how life first arose is a mystery.

1500 mya – Oxygen began to accumulate in the Earth’s atmosphere. Oxygen is made by
cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) as a product of photosynthesis. For 2,200 million years this oxygen
was removed from the atmosphere as it reacted with iron, sank to the bottom of the sea, and became
trapped in rock layers. 1,500 million years ago the free iron ran out and oxygen began to be released
into the atmosphere.

700 mya – The first animals evolved. These were simple single-celled animals.

530 mya – The first vertebrates (fish) evolved.

400 mya – The first land plants evolved. Oxygen in the atmosphere reacted to form ozone, which
formed a layer. This served as a protective barrier to the harmful rays coming from space and allowed plants to colonize the land.

350 mya – The first land vertebrates evolved. With plants present on the land to provide a food
source, animals rapidly followed. The first to venture onto the land were primitive amphibians, and
reptiles evolved soon afterward.

225 mya – The first dinosaurs evolved from lizards.

65 mya – The dinosaurs went extinct. The dinosaurs, and many other species with them, were
wiped out by the after-effects of a meteorite impact, or perhaps several impacts. The impact(s) set off
chains of earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions, which threw lots of dust and acid into the
atmosphere, creating an impact on winter. The dust blocked out the sunlight so plants could no longer
photosynthesize, and food chains collapsed. After the extinction of the dinosaurs,
mammals evolved rapidly and filled the evolutionary niches they left behind.

130,000 years ago (0.13 mya) – Modern humans evolved. Homo sapiens
evolved in Africa from earlier humans. They left Africa around 35,000 years ago and
spread around the globe. Human evolution is still pretty mysterious, due to gaps in the
fossil record.

Classify changes to Earth’s surface

Find evidence of changes to Earth’s surface

Changes to Earth’s surface: volcanic eruptions 

 

WEATHER

The day-to-day conditions of the atmosphere at a place with respect to elements like humidity, temperature, wind speed, rainfall, etc. is called the weather of that place. Weather can be cloudy, sunny, rainy, stormy or clear.

Read a thermometer

Compare temperatures on thermometers

FORCE AND MOTION

Force and motion are fundamental to all matter in the universe. A force is anything that can push or pull on an object. Forces influence objects that are at rest or that are already in motion. Isaac Newton’s three laws of motion involve inertia, mass, velocity, and momentum.

Identify pushes and pulls 1

Identify pushes and pulls 2

How do mass and force affect motion ? 

Newton’s Second Law of Motion states that acceleration is produced when a force acts on a mass. The greater the mass the greater the amount of force needed to accelerate the object. More force is required to move a heavier object than a lighter object.

Compare the speeds of moving objects

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